Gravitational Waves

In Recent times, Gravitational Waves have been in the news, even the noble award this year was given for the contribution towards discovery of Gravitational Waves. India has also decided to go for LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) Projects.

Gravitational waves were first proposed by Einstein as part of theory of relativity. These are like the repulse created in the fabric of space and time. Whenever we move mass, we always get Gravitational Wave. When these wave pass through earth, the earth also vibrates but this vibration is very minute and we need advanced equipment to figure out these vibrations.

Such equipment is LIGO, it consists of two long laser tubes perpendicular to each other, when earth vibrates these laser tube create interference at center which can be used to study the Gravitational Waves.

Gravitational waves can travel throughout the universe without any obstruction. Hence, they can give picture of the universe which we have not seen. This may lead to rise of entirely new branch of astrophysics.

LIGO India will add to ability of the scientists about being more accurate towards the study of Gravitational waves. It will give scientific training to Indian scientists on the international parameters.

LIGO India project will be mainly conducted by three institutions in India. Which are as follows:

  • Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujrat.
  • Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune.
  • Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indoor.

 

Limits To Freedom of Press

Limits To Freedom of Press

All citizens of India have the right to freedom of speech and expression as a fundamental right guaranteed under Article 19 of the Constitution of India. It also guarantees us the following rights:

  • Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
  • Right to form associations or unions.
  • Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.
  • Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
  • Right to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.

Fundamental right to freedom of speech and expression can be suspended on the following grounds:

  • Sovereignty
  • Integrity
  • Security
  • Friendly relations with foreign States
  • Public order
  • Decency or morality
  • In relation to contempt of court
  • Defamation or incitement to an offence

Freedom of Press is guaranteed as fundamental right under Article 19 as right to freedom of speech and expression.

As Press has all freedom to express the things going in the world and their existence is very much important to let people know what is going on apart from their lives. The social causes, solution discussion on available problem, general knowledge etc. these things are reachable to common men and women with the help of Press. There are few but major issues with which media is involved, are as follows:

  1. Media trial
  2. Sting operations

Media Trial

Nowadays media is being involved in taking interviews of accused; it is being involved in collecting evidences, recreating scenes of crime and even judging or presenting accused as convicted its own due to which accused must face defamation even if he/she has not been convicted of any crime by a court of law.

Sometimes due to this judges get biased in their judgement. For example, in the recent Ryan school incident entire management got arrested. Even due to media hype lawyers was not ready to protect school bus driver. We can see another example of Rajesh Talwar and Nupur Talwar, they were behind bars for over 7 years. The CBI court had given verdict in under the influence of media hype.

In the Sahara case, Supreme Court also said that media should not start its own trial.

They can report what is happened in the court. This kind of media trial is contempt of court. Once the judgement is given then media can do so.

Sting Operations

It can be said that a Sting operation is like a “double-edged sword”. In such cases, there are chances that both the parties will end up getting their hands burnt.

Let us consider a case, when somebody is requesting again and again to meet a public servant, and cameras have been fitted at the place where the public servant is called.

After many attempts to make them say the wrong things and/or accept bribes, the public servant is caught on camera. In this way one can be cheated and trapped in a planned manner.

Abetting as public servant to take a bribe is a punishable offence even if the sting operation is done for a noble cause. As per the law, no one has the right to test the integrity of anyone. Only government, CBI and Police can perform a sting operation as per the procedure prescribed by law.

According to the Supreme Court, when some incident occurs where the sting operation is carried out without any planning, and spontaneous actions are recorded then it is legal.

In case, when public servant does not take bribe then according to section 511 of Indian penal code (IPC) it is an attempt to bribe, and one can be sent behind the bars for this.

Currently the government is formulating a law on sting operations.

Conclusion

Freedom of press is guaranteed as a fundamental right within right to freedom of speech and expression as per Article 19. this is subject to restrictions when Public order, morality and public interest at large is considered. So, the media should work to broadcast correct information to the people, without being judgmental itself.

 

Shell Companies

A Shell company is described as a non-trading organisation that does not engage in any activity but exists only as medium for another organisation’s business activity.

In India, there is no clear definition of shell companies. However, typically shell companies include multiple layers of companies that have been created for purpose of diverting money or for money laundering.

Most shell companies do not manufacture any product or deal in any product or render nay service. They are mostly used to make financial transactions. Generally, these companies hold assets only ono paper and not in reality. These companies conduct almost no economic activity.

What are the Concerns

Given the umpteen instance of individuals and corporates abusing shell companies, either to avoid taxes or use them as conduit for money laundering, these are generally viewed as dubious and questionable enterprises.

According to the data provided by Finance Ministry, there are about 1.5 million registered companies in India, while only 600,000 companies file their annual return. This means large number of these companies may be indulging in financial irregularities.

Recent Efforts Of The Government

This September, a Memorandum of understanding(MOU) was signed between the ministry of corporate affairs (MCA) and central board of direct taxes(CBDT) regarding sharing of data and information with each other on an automatic regular basis.

In August, SEBI (The Securities and Exchange Board of India) direct stock exchanges to initiate action against 331 suspected shell companies and bar them from trading.

Similarly, MCA cancelled the registration of around 2 lakh defaulting companies.

Finance ministry directed banks to restrict operations of the bank accounts of suspected companies by directors of such companies or their authorized representatives.

Following this, MCA has identified more than 1 lakh directors for disqualifications under Section 164(2)(a) of the Companies Act, 2013.

Importance of such efforts

These moves are targeted to curb the menace of shell companies, money laundering and black money in the country and prevent misuse of corporate structure by shell companies various illegal purpose.